Md. Azharul Islam
Assistant Professor

Md. Azharul Islam is an Assistant Professor at the Architecture Discipline, Khulna University. He has completed a Bachelor of Architecture in 2016 and a Masters of Science in Human Settlement in 2018 both from Khulna University. His teaching and research are centered around rural housing morphology, disaster resilience, environmental psychology, and water urbanism.

  • Master of Science in Human Settlements (MScHS), Architecture Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna.
  • Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch.), Architecture Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna.

Disaster Resilience, Climate Change Adaptation, Rural Homestead, Rural Landscape, Rural Spatial Growth Pattern, Informal Settlements, Rural Infrastructure, Alternative Livelihood Module, Urban Resilience, Public Ponds, Place-Making

Current Research Project/Collaboration

SL Title Research Role Awarded Date Completion Date Funding Agency
1 Role of ‘permanence’ in coastal architecture: cases from rural coastal Bangladesh

  • Lecturer/ Assistant Professor
    • Khulna University, Architecture Discipline, 14/02/2019 - Present
  • Adjunct Faculty
    • Northern University of Business & Technology Khulna, July 2021-December 2021
  • Part-time Teacher
    • Khulna University, Architecture Discipline, 22/02/2017 - 31/12/2018
  • Junior Architect
    • HEKS/EPER & UNDP, 16/04/2017-15/07/2017

coming soon...

Supervision

SL Title Degree Role Start Date End Date
No Supervision Available

coming soon...

Shetu, M. M., Islam, M. A. (2022, July 1-3), "Assessing Urban Pond-scape as a Public Place: Towards Community Engagement for a Resilient Neighborhood" [Conference Presentation], ICSTEM4IR, SET School, Khulna University, Bangladesh.

Hakim, S. S., Islam, M. A. (2022, July 1-3), "Sustainable Water Technologies for Coastal Rehabilitation Housing" [Conference Presentation], ICSTEM4IR, SET School, Khulna University, Bangladesh.

Parvin, A., Hakim, S. S., & Islam, M. A. (2022), "Policy, design, and way of life in resettlement projects: The case of Ashrayan, Bangladesh", International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 103073. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2022.103073

Islam, M.A., Shetu, M.M. and Hakim, S.S. (2022), "Possibilities of a gender-responsive infrastructure for livelihood-vulnerable women's resilience in rural-coastal Bangladesh", Built Environment Project and Asset Management, Vol. 12 No. 3, pp. 447-466. https://doi.org/10.1108/BEPAM-12-2020-0190

Ren, X., Alam, H., Islam, M. A. (2021, September 8-10), "Development, Design, and Decolonisation: The Making and Remaking of Architecture Departments in Bangladesh from the 1960s to the 1990s" [Conference Presentation], Architectural Training and Research in the Foreign Aid-Funded Knowledge-Economy 1950s-1980s, KTH School of Architecture, Stockholm.

Hakim, S.S., Islam, M.A., Akram, A. B., Deepa, H.P., Doni, N.S., Ara, I., and Debnath, N. (2021), “Physical Upgrading of Housing in Informal Settlements: Priorities for the Extreme Poor”, Plan Plus, 10(1), ISSN: 1608-7844, Retrieved from: https://planplusjournal.com/index.php/planplus/article/view/20 

Rahman, S., Mallick, J., Sakib, N., Islam M. A., and Shetu, M. M. (2018), “Sustainable Port-City”, In S.S.Hakim and S.K. Ahmed (Eds), Reimagining Benapole: Problems, Priorities and Prospects for a Sustainable Future, UDD & ArchKU, ISBN: 978 984 934 9976, (pp. 56-97).

Design Comprehension IX

Develop professional knowledge about the overall building design and construction industry. Explore the theoretical and practical (field visit) knowledge required for a professional level of design with regard to different stakeholder’s roles in the construction industry. Understanding the building construction rule within a given socio-economic context

Introduction to Architectural Thinking

Course Content:  

Identify how architecture and its composition, representation, making and materiality has been shaped by technological, social, political, economic, geographic and cultural forces, and by multiple and conflicting “disciplines” of architecture, not a single history of a unified praxis.

Course Objectives:

1. To introduce the language of architectural criticism and interpretation.

2. The course will be organized thematically, with examples drawn from a range of historical periods as well as contemporary practice.

3. To develop an understanding of architectural thinking through analysis of form, function, and context, as exemplified in given texts and through particular built examples. 

4. To explored thematically by focusing upon a series of significant debates (historical and contemporary) about tectonics, program, representation, and urbanism. Debates will include history versus utopia, handcrafted versus machine-made, generic versus iconic, form versus program, drawing versus scripting, and image versus surface, among others.

Intended Learning Outcomes:

Students who successfully complete this course will be able to:

1. Visually categorize major architectural modes of representation.

2. Synthesize the defining characteristics of buildings using formal and technical vocabulary

3 Criticize that “architectural thinking” does not happen in a vacuum. Rather, it reflects and influences changes in the larger society.

4. Critically evaluate the ideas and theories in the history of architecture. 


Running

Architecture of the World

Course Content:

The history of the built environment as a social and cultural expression from the earliest to more recent times. Themes, theories, and ideas in architecture and urban design are explored, beginning with the earliest written records. 

Course Objectives:

1. To introduce significant examples of world architecture, concentrating on characteristics of the structure, materials, and use.

2. To investigate the ways in which architecture serves as an integral part of cultural, socioeconomic, and political development in cultures around the world. 

3. To explore the history of art and architectural works, the shifting attitudes towards their interpretation, and the geopolitical pressures on their appearance, preservation, and disappearance.

Intended Learning Outcomes:

At the end of this course, students will be able to 

1. Describe world architecture in technical or theoretical terms with proficiency 


2. Describe particular historical developments of architecture in their wider context 


3. Analyze architecture works critically through graphic analysis of form and composition

4. Understand the social and cultural contexts of architecture.

Architecture and Human Behavior

Course Content:

The physical environment affects the realization of human and organizational potential including health, safety, comfort, productivity, and satisfaction. Understanding organizational and human needs are no less critical than understanding financial, technological, and aesthetic factors influencing the planning, design, and management of our physical surroundings. Organizational culture, goals, and structure help shape building design and use. The planning, design, and management of good environments require the consideration of all users.

Course Objectives:

To examine the complex relationship between human behavior and the built environment.

To identify social and cultural norms and how they may vary from the user to the designer and are relevant to design decisions.

To explore design needs and how they may vary for different socio-economic populations.

To explore human life cycles and ranges in physical ability and how these may affect user needs. 

Intended Learning Outcomes:

At the end of this course, students will be able to 

Explore the built environment and design problems from human behavioral points of view.

Evaluate the knowledge of other cultures and their architectural practice.

Explore the planning, design, and management of good environments that require consideration of all users.

Learn about a range of research and problem-solving methods that are available to designers

Explore multi-dimensional spatial experiences through an understanding of design elements, such as circulation, materials, lighting, and acoustics.


Design Ethnography

Course Content:

This course fosters an in-depth understanding of the socio-cultural context as a way of improving the relevance and quality of design by drawing upon examples from the built environment. Students explore ethnographic research methods for understanding people in their everyday and episodic lives as a way of gaining insights into what matters most in design. It asks the researcher, to share firsthand the environment, problems, language, rituals and social relations of a particular group or community of people. It requires an immersion into peoples’ lives, seeking to not only understand but also feel and experience the world as they do. Ethnography, emerging from the discipline of anthropology, provides a systematic research method for digging into people's core values and beliefs, feelings and attitudes, needs and aspirations while uncovering the hidden meanings of their social life. This knowledge allows designers to be responsive to the emerging needs of their clientele and able to generate design solutions that are meaningful. Students are introduced to the practices of ethnographic research and the theories underpinning them by collecting data and building a data portfolio. This data is used for coding, analysis, and interpretation and helps them formulate a design proposition. 

Course Objectives:

1. Appreciate the key role of ethnography in user-centric, participatory and empathic design particularly, and in design research more generally.

2. Develop a detailed understanding of the setting, its people, and their issues, and create a design concept (proposition) to address those issues. 

3. Practice different observational methods in ethnographic fieldwork (person-oriented, setting-oriented, object-oriented, activity-oriented)

4. Learn and practice different ethnographic data collection techniques including the use of ‘informants’, and contextual interviewing.

5. Gain knowledge of data analysis techniques, focusing on the problem of remaining faithful to the natural organization of the social world.

Intended Learning Outcomes:

At the end of the course students will be able to -

1. Develop the ability to select an appropriate research topic that engages with a selected theme from the lecture and identify potential research strategies including a review of relevant literature.

2. Select and employ appropriate research tools to investigate and critically discuss the key ideas and themes that are relevant to the chosen research topic.

3. Demonstrate a critical and in-depth understanding of the chosen topic and of the debates that underpin the chosen methods of research and enquiry.

4. Communicate research and analysis in a professional, synthesized and coherent way for a specified audience using appropriate textual and/or visual documentation.


Running

Built Environmental Design Theory

Course Content:

Identify the implication of architectural lighting and its relationship with spatial quality. Understanding human perception of luminous environment. Developing design criteria and designing for natural and artificial lighting in architectural spaces. Understand how knowledge of architectural acoustics serves as an environmental quality modifier. Learning physiology of sound; generation, propagation, and perception of sound. Study of auditorium acoustics; behavior of sound in indoor spaces.Techniques of noise measurements and various methods of its control in indoor spaces.

Course Objectives:

1. Understanding properties and application of light and sound as modifiers of architectural spaces.

2. Students will be competent to identify the significance of lighting and acoustical design in architectural spaces to improve workability or efficiency.

3. Make a clear conception of lighting and acoustical design criteria in a different context. 

4. Familiarize the students with the tools and techniques of architectural acoustics and lighting design.

5. Inspire students to undertake higher research in the field of architectural acoustics and lighting.

Learning Outcomes: 

Students will be able to --

1. Measure light and sound in terms of both quality and quantity.

2. Recognize the factors of acoustics and lighting that act as modifiers of architectural spaces. 

3. Identify special features of light and sound that are to be considered with special care during built environment design.

4. Evaluate the performance of a built environment from the acoustics and lighting point of view.

5. Apply this knowledge into his/her studio projects with an innovative approach.

Interior Architecture & Design

Course Content:

This course has a reputation and creative vision which puts it at the forefront of professional interior design practice. The Interior Designer deals with the spaces inside buildings. The role of the Interior Designer is to create interiors with spatial qualities that are habitable for people on all levels of experience: aesthetically, functionally, psychologically and economically. The aim is to achieve comfort and efficiency; spaces that answer the needs of the client. Therefore the Interior Designer is concerned with the layout, finishes, details, furnishings and lighting of such spaces in new buildings or as part of refurbishment projects. An Interior Designer is much more than a decorator. He or she is a key contributor to the professional team and works in collaboration with architects, quantity surveyors, engineers, project managers, building contractors and suppliers of products, from the design stage - when ideas are considered and designs developed – to the final completion of the project. The importance of well-designed interiors is to create spaces that nurture the spirit, invigorate the senses and stimulate the mind. The emphasis falls on human well-being and is becoming more critical in our day and age. Throughout the class, students will sculpt, manipulate, remodel and repurpose interior space in response to contemporary issues and live briefs from external clients.

Course Objectives:

1. To produce confident, enterprising, adaptable, cooperative and highly creative interior architects and professional design practice responsive to the needs of contemporary society.

2. To develop students’ capacity for innovatory thought, technical understanding and communication, based on a critical and reflective understanding of the discipline. 

3. To develop the ‘thinking designer’ as an individual creative personality who can respond to design constraints and opportunities holistically. 

4. To develop enterprising, effective, self-reliant and self-directed people capable of life-long learning, concepts that are rooted in the tradition of art and design education. 

5. To create graduates who will create meaningful and enduring interior spaces this can positively and inclusively enhance the human experience.

Intended Learning Outcomes:

At the end of the course, students will be able to

1. Apply appropriate theories, methodology and tools to identify, critically evaluate and inform interior architecture and design practice in terms of global and local context, use and conceptual approach to given and self-initiated design briefs.

2. Use multi-faceted, responsive design processes to explore, initiate, challenge, imagine, innovate, review, synthesize and enhance ideas using a range of conventional and digital drawing, modeling and visualizing processes and media in the practice of interior architecture and design. 

3. Create detailed and resolved interior architecture and design proposals that demonstrate ingenuity, synthesis, critical and aesthetic analysis and judgment in response to context, structure, construction, materials, and inclusive use. 

4. Manipulate and combine a range of conventional and digital visual media and conventions in the development, visualization and presentation of interior architecture and design proposals. 

5. Rationalize, justify and articulate the direction, development and content of interior architecture and design proposals in both oral and written form to a range of different audiences. 

6. Manage, sequence and review work in an enthusiastic, reflective, responsible, enterprising and professional manner as a team member and as an individual when working with diverse clients, users and other professionals.

7.    Use Earth-friendly materials to create beautiful and environmentally friendly interiors.


Urban Design

Course Content:

A critical investigation into the relationship between urban space, people and society. Basic concepts and theories of urban design will be interpreted in relation to the chronological development of towns, squares or plazas, streets and buildings. Focus will be on historical, socio-cultural and milestone examples, which affect economic forces that are the definitive architectural shape of the urban fabric and the plans for the city. Application of principles, techniques, regulatory and institutional frameworks into sustainable urban design. Contemporary issues and approaches in urban design like urban infill, renewal, redevelopment, conservation, water urbanism and development control. 

Course Objectives:

1. This course primarily introduces thinking about how cities grow and change. 

2. Develop capacity to build and maintain resilient urban design and built environments that are humane and environmentally friendly, invulnerable against disaster, and well-coordinated with local culture and climate.

3. Understand the relationship between society, urban design and the built environment.

4. A knowledge base will be created through the study of this course on contemporary issues and approaches in urban design 

Learning Outcomes: 

Students will be able to--

1. Develop a broad vision of urban design and its relationship with the built environment and planning.

2. Relate people and place with the development process of a city at large. 

3. Develop architectural and urban design solutions addressing contemporary urban issues.

4. Become responsible leaders, who can remain active internationally in the field of urban design and the built environment.  

5. Carry out higher studies and research in the field of urban design.

Rural Architecture and Planning

Course Content:

Rural life and its indigenous way of living of rural people play an important role to learn our own identity and culture. Its main concern is with managing acceptable and sustainable environmental change in a constantly changing world, and being at the forefront of shaping that world for future generations. With this aim, this course has discussed the characteristics of the rural landscape in Bangladesh, its origin, typology according to its topography, understanding of the quality of life. 

Course Objectives:

1. To identify the problems and issues in rural development: population, urbanization and migration, human resource development.

2. To understand the nature and scope of integrated rural development -social, economic and physical characteristics of rural settlements.

3. To discuss the practiced planning policies, rules regulations and strategies for future development.

Intended Learning Outcome:

At the end of this course, students will be able to –

1. Evaluate the several typologies of rural settlement and their different formation process. 

2. Integrate the local construction technology, traditional materials and methods in the design process. 

3. Execute indigenous adaptive measures respecting nature.   

4. Explain the earth construction methods and materials of vernacular architecture. 


Environmental planning and design

Course Contents:

  • Introduction- the significance of environmental planning and design in a sustainable environment 
  • Planning processes and methodologies – content and function, the plan as a process, social and historical considerations, elements of planning and teamwork
  • Concept of planning in the developed and developing countries-protection and restoration of the natural system
  • Design plan- implementation process, comprehensive plan, zoning plan, industrial performance, historical preservation, flexible zoning, a specific plan
  • Environmental design fundamentals
  • Geo-climatic factors in environmental design
  • Social and aesthetic factors
  • Site evaluation
  • Land-use regulations
  • Modern development and its effects on the physical environment
  • Energy-efficient buildings and settlements
  • Design and planning guidelines for environmental design
  • Sociological, psychological and geo-climatic factors of low-rise development

Part A: 

  • Significance of environmental planning and design in a sustainable environment
  • Historic evolution of environment responsive planning and design (Prehistoric to modern)
  • Modern development and their effects in the physical environment

Part B:

  • Factors (purpose) of environmental planning and design
  • Different types of environmental planning and design approaches
  • Components of environmental planning
  • Processes and methodologies of environmental planning and design
  • Contemporary  trends of environmental planning and design 
  • Environment responsive planning and design  approaches (TOD, TND, CPTED)

Design -VI

Complex building problems include large public buildings emphasizing the Ordering principles, Human experiences, Ideas, and technologies of Architecture.

Architectural Field Survey - IV

Socio-economic and Technical study for the Course Arch-3202 to comprehend Architecture through formal and functional expressions.

Working Drawing - II

Large scale detail Architectural working drawing as construction document; Kitchen, Toilet, Stair, Door, Window, Wall section, Critical roof section, etc.

Design - VII

Urban planning and design; Conservation and Renewal of city blocks and Slum clearance; River front development, etc. Large scale multi-functional building design in the light of modern technology

Architectural Field Survey -V

Theoretical Studies for the course Arch- 4102 to comprehend Architecture through socio-economic context.

Interior Design

Interior Architecture Design program based on all the phases of interior planning, emphasizing problem solving and creative development of the proximate environments. Study of precedents of interior environments, furniture, interior design technology, use of day-lighting and artificial lighting and color schemes. 

Design -VIII

Study and design of complex multi-functional buildings in the light of modern technology. Investigation, analysis and design of housing and communities with specific themes and their impact on the immediate environment Social, Psychological or emotional, or spiritual contents of built form and environment is emphasized.

Architectural Field Survey -VI

Theoretical study and analysis for the course Arch 4202 to comprehend Architecture through the socio-cultural aspects pertaining to the use-user relationship.

Design -IX

Simple building design with detailed drawings for construction including preliminary drawings, presentation drawings working drawings, detail drawings etc., Emphasis is given on design quality in terms of formal, functional and structural aspects, to attain a professional level of achievement, within a given socio-economic context.

Architectural Semiotics

Understanding of design problem through interaction with different groups involved in construction activity (such as Consultant, Client, Regulatory authority, Users, etc); Field visits and theoretical underpinning required for the professional level of design based on the course Arch -5102.

Design X

The final design project, a partial requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Architecture, is an integral part of the final year thesis. Various approaches of thesis design are allowed based on project needs or students’ aptitude.


INVESTIGATION APPROACH:  The thesis project enables students to fully articulate their programs, concepts and understanding of architecture through the preparation of design solutions founded on technology, economic environment, life, culture and a sense of history. The design should reflect a minimum standard of professional competence. 


REAL LIFE APPROACH: Professional approach towards design exercise (Emphasis is given on the professional level of achievement).


Dissertation

The final design is supported by a dissertation that draws upon the existing body of knowledge and rationalizes the parameters and standards of design and defines the program. The course is linked to course no. Arch-5202. The design will be followed by either submission of a report or submission of a set of construction documents along with a project report.

Design Comprehension VII

Conceptual understanding and critical analysis of issues surrounding different forms and scale of architectural intervention in urban and rural design; set objectives, develop policies and approaches; formulate physical planning and design considerations for a given design problem. 

Design Studio VII

Urban and rural planning and design; conservation and renewal of city blocks, settlements; slum and squatter improvement and up-gradation; riverfront development, etc. large scale multi-functional built the environmental design in the light of a given socio-economic and technological context, based on the conceptual and theoretical understanding of the course Arch-4112. 

Design Discourse V

Discussion, defense, explanation and communication through the presentation of theory, methodology and implementation of different phases of the design of the project offered in Arch 4112 & Arch 4114.

Architectural Field Survey V

Field-based knowledge for the course Arch- 4114 to comprehend architectural intervention in urban and rural contexts.

Design Studio IX

A realistic approach to building design exercise; preparation of detailed drawings and documents for construction and approval; development of architectural design and preparation of documents based on building construction rule for a given site. Emphasis is given on design quality in terms of formal, functional, and structural aspects to attain a professional level of achievement, within a given socio-economic context and regulatory framework. 

Design Discourse VII

Discussion, defense, explanation and communication through the presentation of theory, methodology and implementation of different phases of the design of the project offered in Arch 5112 & Arch 5114.

Habitat Design – Urban Studio

Course Content:

Urban Studio explores individual design interest working in a team of thematic research cluster, lab, or center that deals with real-life socio-economic, cultural and environmental issues common in the urban context of Bangladesh or similar other countries. Urban Studio of Habitat Design focuses on the agendas and approaches to the making and reading of urban conditions and designs particularly in the context of cities in developing nations. The analysis of most significant works and texts, with emphasis on architecture as the vehicle of study, and keeping a constant reference to urban and landscape theories and designs, the focus is given on the design and development of complex architectural projects situated in urban contexts and developed with regard to program, site, building, and representation. Students need to develop their skills in two-way design communication and critical thinking. Students are introduced to urban design, who conduct broad-based research into issues regarding larger mixed-use buildings and planning issues in the city; complex urban relationships, which characterize the cities in the Global South, are hence explored. Research-based design projects focus on the variety of contemporary and future modes of architectural practice against a given socio-economic and technological context. Such processes are also expected to be interdisciplinary, making use of the juxtapositions and overlapping of disciplinary boundaries, and accommodating the perspectives of all stakeholders involved with a focus on community. Areas of intervention remain focused on but not limited to settlement up-gradation, conservation, redevelopment, housing, informal settlement system, urban ecology, and complex multi-functional buildings. 

Course Objectives:

The course intends to:

1. Develop awareness of and acknowledgment of the complexities, contradictions, dualities and vulnerabilities underlying the man-made spatio-physical environment. 

2. Recognize the intensions and actions of agents as a key force in the (trans)formation of built environment (in relation to the making of place). 

3. Inform students about the importance of assuming a theoretically informed position; being critical about the concepts of ‘modernity and sustainability and update themselves about key spatial theories which include but are not limited to the literature of (Post)Modernism, (Post)Colonialism, (Post)Marxism and Neoliberalism. 

4. Maintain a clear methodology and the content and focus being rigorous and discursive, and open along different academic streams for further inquiry and exploration. In that, in addition to the conventional architectural tools and techniques, those used in Urban Design, Urban Planning, Housing Studies, Environment Behaviour Studies, Sociology, Anthropology and Political Economy will be adhered to. 

5. Conduct design exercises at the various scalar levels of the spatio-physical environment, where each level is considered part of an interrelated whole to make sense of the (trans)formation. 

Intended Learning Outcomes:

After completion of the course students are expected to:

1. Raise clear and precise questions, use abstract ideas to interpret information, consider diverse points of view, reach well-reasoned conclusions, and test alternative outcomes against relevant criteria and standards.

2. Apply a research-driven methodology to address a given architectural problem. This includes: investigation, analysis of issues, setting of objectives, developing policies and approaches; formulating physical planning and design considerations for a given design problem and detailed design.

3. Learn and recognize about alternative communication tools as integral parts of the design development process; develop an ability to read, write, speak and listen effectively. Showcase skills of in-person survey and conduct interviews.

4. Carry out critical policy analysis, identify gaps and propose necessary amendments toward the conceptualization and implementation of an architectural project.

5. Acquire skills in documenting buildings/spaces.

6. Conduct feasibility analysis of any architectural project and project site. 

7. Apply in a real site the urban design methods and techniques (e.g. typo-stylistic-morphological analysis of buildings).

8. Work out architectural programs from a combination of stakeholder feedback; prevailing theories, policies, codes and by laws; and architectural standards – both national and international.

Topics in Advanced Structures

Course Content: 

This course gives students the opportunity to further explore specific issues and topics in advanced structural systems for architecture. The course will present precedent projects, case studies and strategies for integrating structural principles into the design process. Course topics may include but are not limited to the study of established and exploratory structural systems, construction materials, and fabrication techniques.

Course Objectives: 

1. To explore specific issues and topics in advanced structural systems for architecture through case studies

2. To explain how the knowledge of structural systems, construction materials and fabrication techniques are incorporated in architectural design 

Intended Learning Outcomes: 

At the end of the course students are expected to

1. Explain the principles of advanced structure design

2. Describe and choose cutting edge technologies 

3. Synthesize the knowledge of structural principles and construction techniques for architectural design


Habitat Design - Rural Studio

Course Content: 

In a context of rapidly transforming rural scapes and non-urban areas, and within a general ignorance of the discipline of Architecture to rural geography, this lab demonstrates a way to bring design, in all its dimensions (from aesthetics to community-based design/planning process), to address the present and prospective issues pertaining to rural architecture particularly and built environment generally. While the reasons behind these transformations remain manifold – social, economic, political, demographic, occupational, environmental and above all infrastructural with their profound impact on rural quality of life, critical addressing of these provide fresh opportunities to devise new ways of thinking for the discipline of Architecture. The problem-solving processes of rural design hence take into account the community values, recognize their assets and eco-environmental qualities, and question how these could enhance the rural communities’ quality of life. The design process encourages multidisciplinarity and connects the environmental, cultural, and social issues with educational, technological and organizational aspects to help formulate design concepts. 

The context for rural transformation is assessed against the backdrop of three different yet interconnected phenomena that particularly typify the rural settlements of the Global South, namely market economy (and globalization), urbanization (and industrialization) and climate change. In terms of geographic coverage, it remains interested in rural communities, small towns, ‘not so urban’ and ‘rurban’ settlements and regions. Areas of intervention remain focused on but not limited to land use (policy and building codes), the demographic tendency (and mobilities), rural-urban continuum and thresholds, typo-morphology, rural housing, rehabilitation and resilience, traditional and hybrid settlement system, health and livelihood and rural ecology. 

Course Objectives:

1. Awareness of and acknowledgment of the complexities, contradictions, dualities and vulnerabilities underlying the man-made spatio-physical environment. 

2. Recognize the intentions and actions of agents as a key force in the (trans)formation of the built environment (in relation to the making of place). 

3. Inform students about the importance of assuming a theoretically informed position; being critical about the concepts of ‘modernity and sustainability and updating themselves about key spatial theories which include but are not limited to the literature of (Post)Modernism, (Post)Colonialism, (Post)Marxism and Neoliberalism. 

4. Maintain a clear methodology and the content and focus being rigorous and discursive, and open along different academic streams for further inquiry and exploration. In that, addition to the conventional architectural tools and techniques, those used in Urban Design, Urban Planning, Housing Studies, Environment Behavior Studies, Sociology, Anthropology and Political Economy will be adhered to. 

5. Conduct design exercises at the various scalar levels of the spatio-physical environment, where each level is considered part of an interrelated whole to make sense of the (trans)formation. 

Intended Learning Outcomes:

After completion of the course students are expected to:

1. Create design/planning schemes by recognizing local geo-spatial-morphological characteristics, the needs and aspirations of communities, and space and building users; the ways in which spaces and places fit into the local context.

2. Ask clear and precise questions, use abstract ideas to interpret information, consider diverse points of view, reach well-reasoned conclusions, and test alternative outcomes against relevant criteria and standards.

3. Apply a research-driven methodology to address a given architectural problem. This includes investigation, analysis of issues, setting of objectives, developing policies and approaches; formulating physical planning and design considerations for a given design problem and detailed design.

4. Learn and recognize about alternative communication tools as integral parts of design development process; develop ability to read, write, speak and listen effectively. Showcase skills of in-person survey, conduct interviews and community engagements.

5. Carry out critical policy analysis, identify gaps and propose necessary amendments toward the conceptualization and implementation of an architectural project.

6. Acquire skills of documenting buildings, spaces and landscapes.

7. Conduct feasibility analysis of any project and project site in a non-urban setting. 

8. Develop and apply in a real site the appropriate rural design methods and techniques.

9.    Work out architectural programs from a combination of stakeholder feedback; prevailing theories, policies, codes and by laws; and architectural standards – both national and international.


Visual Methods in Planning and Development

Course Content: 

Introduction to Cartography, photo documentation, and geographic information systems as employed in Mapping, planning, policy, management and development. Visual explanations. The courses include both lecture and lab portions; in the lecture portion, students study whether the topography of an area has changed and study how buildings have affected development. For labs, students go to libraries and conduct interviews to visualize how the topography looked previously.

Course Objectives: 

1. To familiarize the students with  the vocabulary and symbols of map design and an overview of types of maps and map-making tool 

2. Students will learn how to compile, analyze, and present geospatial data while emphasizing the value of visual communication. 

Intended Learning Outcome: 

By the end of this course, the student will be able to: 

1. Discuss the historical development of the field and practice identifying maps by their historical period.

2. Working with both computer cartography and geographic information systems (GIS), 

3. learn the basic principles of geodesy, statistical mapping and graphing, as well as developing basic graphic design skills to create high-quality and accurate maps 

4. understand the basics of data capture, storage, analysis, and output in a GIS; and

5. Demonstrate the correct use of topographic maps, compasses and global positioning systems (GPS) to explore a specific area. 

6. Interpret the knowledge of GIS in policy-making, planning and resource management.


Community Building Workshop

Course Content: 

The course intends to investigate issues in design and construction through hands-on experiences and involvement in an actual building process. By participating in the design and construction of various types of community projects including temporary or permanent installations, shelters or buildings, students are to explore the nature of materials and structure, methods in construction, as well as modes of fabrication and design media. The process also provides opportunities for students to interact and exchange knowledge with different stakeholders involved in the building process: users, contractors, managers and sponsors. The focus of task for each year may vary depending on the nature of the project and resources available, but a commitment to the community and a teamwork spirit, as well as the appreciation of the tactile and tectonic quality in design will always be an essential part for the course.

Course Objectives:

1. To explore different aspects of community projects by participating in design and construction

2. To interact with different stakeholders and identify their role in the building design process

3. To introduce a building/project/resource as a commitment to the community

Intended Learning Outcomes:

The students are expected to 

1. Investigate and accommodate the issues in the design and construction of various community projects

2. Interact and exchange knowledge with different stakeholders, incorporating their needs in community projects

3. Respond to a community project as a commitment to the community

4. Appreciate its physical, geographical and social quality as an essential part of the design.


Thesis I

Course Content:

In Thesis I, the students prepare a thesis proposal through 1) identifying a needs-based topic and research question; 2) co-constructing a program engaging targeted stakeholders/user-groups/client; and 3) designing the ‘design research’ methodology based on case studies and specific methods of empirical data-gathering and measurable intentions. 

It is neither possible nor desirable to formulate conclusively the acceptable topics or methods a Thesis might engage, but the following list of possibilities may be taken as a useful illustration of proposals that might be pursued:

a project that investigates the body as a metaphor and phenomenological standard for the design of a building. 

the theoretical and technical design of an advanced structural or building system including the projection of specific material and constructional processes.

the formulation, through projections of zoning and master planning, of typical architectural developments in an urban, rural, suburban or peri-urban area. 

the development of an original piece of computer software to support some design task.

the development of a new type for an airport, which considers the multiple modes of transportation involved in the experience of an airport and their architectural implications. 

the development of new prototypical fabrication processes. 

the development of techniques within existing software platforms to carry out defined architectural tasks.

the experimental adaptation of an existing technology to improve the environmental performance of typical architectural components or types.

a project that elaborates a social space incorporating current and future media and electronic technologies. 

a project that proposes an addition to a notable existing architectural object.

a housing project designed to maximize a aspects of economic, social, cultural and environmental performances.

a community-based settlement upgradation, rehabilitation or regeneration project.

the development of disaster adaptive settlements and built environment.

the design of energy efficient building   

a theoretical speculation, undertaken through architectural thinking, upon the changing aesthetic potentials made possible by digital technologies.

an interpretation of a historical architectural object, cultural landscape or urban/rural condition that proposes new approaches and techniques for architectural engagements.

a critique of a prevailing cultural condition undertaken through the manipulation of the architectural consequences of that condition.

Course Objectives:

The course intends to:

1. Develop capacity to identify an area of interest within built environment design field through critical review of relevant literature, contextual analysis and case studies. 

2. Formulate specific design research questions and justify its relevance to the profession.

3. Set objectives, design methodology and formulate a program/basis of design intervention working with the community/stakeholders.

Intended Learning Outcomes:

After completion of the course students are expected to develop a detailed thesis proposal including potential design ideas/considerations/principles/strategies to pursue built environmental design/support solution in Thesis II.   

Running

Building Information Modeling in Architectural Practice

Course Content: 

BIM technology is more and more often adopted in architectural practices throughout the world as the main tool for design, managing and documenting projects. Successful implementation of BIM and taking most advantage of the technology requires proper configurations, methodologies and standards. BIM technology allows integration within one project database of Architecture, Structure, MEP (Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing) and others to create a complete virtual model of a future building. Such a model is like a living entity, constantly updated throughout the design process and later during the building lifetime. In various stages of this lifetime a BIM model can be used for many purposes from scheduling and calculating areas, curtain wall costing, outputting documentation, performing thermal analysis to managing tenants and security issues in the field of building maintenance. This course is designed to enhance not only the understanding of capabilities and limitations of the technology in very practical aspects, but also orientation in prospects and future opportunities for BIM. 

Course Objectives: 

1. To introduce the students to BIM technology including methodology, standards and limitations.

2. To explore the various purpose of use of BIM during the building lifetime.

3. To enhance student's ability to articulate BIM technology in architectural practice.

Intended Learning Outcomes: 

The students are expected to 

1. Create a complete virtual model of a building by integrating the database of Architecture, Structure, MEP (Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing) and others

2. Assemble scheduling, costing, thermal analysis and output documentation in the model of a building

3. Recognize the limitations and future prospect of BIM technology


Running

Digital Fabrication Lab

Course Content: 

With the increasing sophistication of CAD and other design software, there is now a wide array of means for both designing and fabricating architecture and its components. The proliferation of advanced modeling software and hardware has enabled architects and students to conceive and create designs that would be very difficult to do using more traditional methods. Digital fabrication is establishing itself as a core discipline for architecture. It promises to close the gaps between digital technologies and the physical construction process. The benefits of digital fabrication are evident: efficient use of production resources, material-specific design concepts and constructive durability. Through a multidisciplinary approach the disciplines of architecture, structural design, robotics, and material and computer sciences are brought together to establish digital technology as an essential part of future building processes.

Course Objectives:

1. To bring together multiple disciplines such as architecture, computer science, structural engineering, etc. as an essential part of future building processes.

2. To explore the technologies for fabrication of building components.

Intended Learning Outcomes: 

After completion of this course the students are expected to

1. Adapt their lessons for designing and fabricating architecture and its components.

2. Apply advanced modeling software and hardware to conceive and create designs that is difficult to do using traditional methods.

3. Synthesize multidisciplinary knowledge to have hands-on experience to fabricate different building components.


Running

Parametric Structures

Course Content: 

This course will examine the concept of parametric systems and their applications in and implications on architecture. Through a series of lectures and guided design exercises students will be introduced to the theoretical background and logic of parametric systems and the generation of them in the digital environment. Historical building precedents of specific architectural typologies will be examined to open up a critical dialogue between existing physical constraints and the digital realm. Different design techniques will be studied and deployed in order to generate several parametrically driven prototypes that have the capacity to form innovative architectural structures.

Course Objectives:

1. To examine the concept of parametric systems and their application in and implication on architecture.

2. To introduce the theoretical background, logic of parametric systems and generation of them in the digital environment.

Intended Learning Outcomes:

After completion of this course the students are expected to

1. Criticize and adapt different design techniques in order to generate several parametrically driven prototypes that have the capacity to form innovative architectural structures.

2. Analyze historical building precedents of specific architectural typologies to build up critical thinking on existing physical constraints and the digital realm.


Running

Design Studio VIII : Urban Housing & Rehabilitation

New-Normal Private Housing: Envisioning Residential Livability in the Deltaic Context of Khulna 

Department of Architecture, Northern University of Business and Technology, Khulna

Session: Spring 2021

Year: 4th, Term: 2

Course Code: Arch 4202

Course Title: Design Studio VIII : Urban Housing & Rehabilitation

Course Credit: 10.0 Credits

Course hour: 20.0 Hours/Week


Course Syllabus: 

Design exercises involving multi-functional mixed use buildings with complexity of functional and circulation patterns and site parameters. Environmental analysis of the requirements. Formal and functional expression. Technical integration.

Preamble:

The 21st century has seen significant shifts in climate variables, reflected in the form of extreme weather conditions and events. Coupled with infectious diseases and viruses, it has and is still presenting societies and organizations today with major, and occasionally unprecedented, challenges. Consequently, the resulting disruptions and their consequences are changing the Built Environment (BE), forcing the world to rethink buildings and urban areas as well as leverage innovative sustainable solutions. In light of the extraordinary risks posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change impacts escalated in the form of an increased frequency of natural hazard occurrences in cities. Therefore, current research is now highlighting the importance of the role of the Built Environment in supporting public health measures, thus reducing the risk of infections and creating a positive force for the development of healthy urban centers.

The Built Environment is, indeed, of major importance within the context of the wider social and economic environment and its quality is directly correlated to the emergence of serious diseases such as respiratory ones, and others that are psychological or psychiatric. Recent predicaments have shown the limitations of building efficiency, comfort conditions, and deficiencies of the different dimensions of the Built Environment in, both, the indoors and outdoors. As a result, well-referenced solutions are now emerging and developing, ranging from proposed alterations to the space organization, building materials, and design of urban areas, in an effort to increase resilience, improve air quality and lower energy requirements of using materials. However, there are more lessons to be learned and efforts to be made towards a more sustainable and resilient environment, by means of a multidisciplinary scientific and policy-making effort.

For the importance and urgency of this theme, this design studio intends to the main research inquiry:

Focusing (hardware): 3 scale: family, neighbor, community

Emphasizing (software): comfort, social distancing, hygiene, socialization, nature integration, resilience and adaptation

Studio Objectives:

The design studio intends to:

1.       Conclude understanding of housing for the developing country context

2.       Review critically the prior research on livability, health & well-being, quality of life, and covid-safety regarding built-environment and housing literature

3.       Acknowledge the complexity, duality, contradiction, and vulnerability of Khulna as a deltaic and coastal city

4.       Investigate the needs, and demands of the upper-middle-class people regarding urban vertical living

5.       Conceptualize different design approaches in addressing identified issues

6.       Innovate design solutions in community, neighborhood, and living unit scale

Intended Learning Outcome:

After completion of the course students are expected to:

1.  Raise clear and precise questions, use abstract ideas to interpret information, consider diverse points of view, reach well-reasoned conclusions, and test alternative outcomes against relevant criteria and standards.

2.  Apply a research-driven methodology to address a given architectural problem. This includes: investigation, analysis of issues, setting of objectives, developing policies and approaches; formulating physical planning and design considerations for a given design problem, and detailed design.

3.  Learn and recognize alternative communication tools as integral parts of the design development process; develop the ability to read, write, speak and listen effectively. Showcase skills of in-person survey and conduct interviews.

4.   Acquire skills in documenting buildings/spaces. 

Studio Phasing:

  1. Phase 1: Understanding Housing (4 Weeks)

Main Task:

  1. Definition and components of housing: Formal Housing

  2. Global and national policy concerns regarding housing design

    1. SDG

    2. Habitat III

    3. Seventh Five Year Plan

    4. Bangladesh Delta Plan

    5. National Housing Policy

    6. National Land Use Policy

  3. Health, Well-being, Livability and Quality of life in housing

  4. Housing and Covid-19

  5. Case studies of “healthy” housing

Expected outcome:

  1. List of principles, components, aspects and indicators regarding housing design

  2. Conceptual / Theoretical framework

  3. Site selection criteria

  4. Questionnaire for need and demand identification

  1. Phase 2: Exploring the Context (3 Weeks)

Main Tasks:

  1. Site and surroundings

    1. Justification map based on criteria

    2. Dimension map

    3. Road network

    4. Land use

    5. Topography

    6. Hazard mapping

  2. Target group Demography

    1. Target market: income group?

    2. Household income

    3. Employment status

    4. Workplace

    5. Marital status

    6. Family size

  3. User Demand identification

  4. Covid specific need identification

  5. Technicalities

    1.  Occupancy type: A (residential)

    2.  Land area

    3.  Height limitation

    4.  Road width

    5.  Applicable FAR

    6.  Maximum ground coverage:

    7.  Maximum built area: within the parameter of Imarat Nirman Bidhimala 2008

Expected Outcome:

  1. Justified Site

  2. Relevant maps 

  3. Formulated program

  1. Phase 3: Synthesis and Design Innovation (7 Weeks)

Main Task:

  • Preparation of Design Checklist

Design must meet the current BNBC (Bangladesh National Building Code) requirements;

1.       Requirement for Master plan

a.       Master plan must include –

                                                  i.      Solar design principles;

                                                ii.      Rainwater harvesting design principles;

                                              iii.      Water recycling, waste management (garbage disposal)

                                               iv.      Roof gardening design principles

                                                 v.      Environmental sustainability

b.       An early learning center within the community;

c.       A Health Care Center;

d.       Provision of utility facilities (Electricity, Gas, Water etc.) in an innovative way within the community

e.       Park or playground, one stop services, should be taken care of as per requirement of the number of people;

f.        The design should create a sense of ownership, sense of belongingness and sense of security among the targeted communities, resulting in a stronger social cohesion.

2.       Requirement for Unit/ Cluster/ Building

a.       Minimum unit required 170+;

b.       Maximum height of each building 10 storied;

c.       Each flat’s Carpet area should not exceed 550 sq.ft. and 750 sq.ft. when common space staircase, lift, circulation and services are included

d.       Two bed rooms in each unit.

e.       One toilet (min) kitchen and veranda;

f.        Living / dining that allows seating / space for minimum 4 people and space for setting appropriate furniture including seating, dining table & chairs, books /general storage;

g.       Space identified for study area;

Landscape Design Studio

Envisioning Ecological Waterscape of Khulna City

Department of Architecture, Northern University of Business and Technology, Khulna

Session: Spring 2021

Year: 4th, Term: 2

Course Code: Arch 4204

Course Title: Landscape Design Studio

Course Credit: 1.50 Credits

Course hour: 3.0 Hours/Week

Course Syllabus: 

Analysis of landscape elements through sketches, drawings and reports on outdoor environment, Site analysis. Application of the principles and techniques of landscape design through design exercises of site planning and area development.

Studio Objectives:

The design studio intends to:

  • Understand ecology of surrounding Urban water bodies of khulna city
  • Investigate river, canal and pond oriented community needs 
  • Initiate environmental approach of landscape design 
  • Conceptualise open space as a healthy urban park
  • Explore possibilities of softscaping in the water edge

Studio Phasing:

  • Introduce Project and Site
  • Exploration of Existing
  • Identification of Needs
  • Interpretation of Design Ideas
  • Detail Design and communication

Studio Tasks:

Deliverables phase 01:

  • Historical Bio: 300 words
  • Site Map
  • Site Morphology Mapping
  • Land Elevation Map
  • Water system Mapping
  • Green energy source mapping
  • Vegetation Mapping
  • Ecology Section
  • Land use Mapping
  • Sun path and wind direction
  • Micro-climate Map
  • Micro-climate sections
  • Utility Mapping
  • Pollution Mapping
  • Hazard mapping
  • Age-group activity mapping
  • Community activity mapping
  • Accessibility Mapping

Deliverables phase 02: Need Assessment.

Deliverables phase 03: Concept and Primary Design

Deliverables phase 04: Complete Design

Deliverables phase 05: Final Design and Communication

Design Communication Workshop

The workshop provides basic skills and techniques of settlement studies through hands-on training and practices. This sessional course aims to provide an opportunity for students to acquire concepts and skills relating to settlement development, urban and rural design, urban transformations at different scales, as well as more general skills such as verbal, written and visual presentation, analysis and synthesis. Learning activities are focused on practical sites where multiplicities and challenges of intervention are met with the compounded realities of informality, socio-political, cultural and built environmental constructs. 

Design Studio

This sessional course offers a research-focused design studio that allows students to pursue a rigorous professional approach to architecture within a highly speculative and creative context. This project-based course aims to provide an opportunity for students to acquire concepts and skills relating to real-life problems related to development, urban design, or rural settlement issues at different scales, as well as more general skills such as verbal, written and visual presentation and analytical ability.   

  • Design Comprehension IX
  • Introduction to Architectural Thinking
  • Architecture of the World
  • Architecture and Human Behavior
  • Design Ethnography
  • Built Environmental Design Theory
  • Interior Architecture & Design
  • Urban Design
  • Rural Architecture and Planning
  • Environmental planning and design
  • Design -VI
  • Architectural Field Survey - IV
  • Working Drawing - II
  • Design - VII
  • Architectural Field Survey -V
  • Interior Design
  • Design -VIII
  • Architectural Field Survey -VI
  • Design -IX
  • Architectural Semiotics
  • Design X
  • Dissertation
  • Design Comprehension VII
  • Design Studio VII
  • Design Discourse V
  • Architectural Field Survey V
  • Design Studio IX
  • Design Discourse VII
  • Habitat Design – Urban Studio
  • Topics in Advanced Structures
  • Habitat Design - Rural Studio
  • Visual Methods in Planning and Development
  • Community Building Workshop
  • Thesis I
  • Building Information Modeling in Architectural Practice
  • Digital Fabrication Lab
  • Parametric Structures
  • Design Studio VIII : Urban Housing & Rehabilitation
  • Landscape Design Studio
  • Design Communication Workshop
  • Design Studio